U.S. refiners forecast strong first-quarter earnings as margins on gasoline and diesel sales improved, refining capacity fell sharply and crude supplies tightened due to the Russia-Ukraine war.
Global refining capacity has declined amid the coronavirus pandemic, with several less profitable refineries closing in the past two years. However, global fuel demand has rebounded to near pre-pandemic levels, boosting the profits of facilities still operating.
Seven U.S. independent refiners are expected to earn 61 cents a share, compared with a loss of $1.32 in the first quarter of 2021, according to Refinitiv's IBES.
By 2022, gasoline and distillate graphene powder.
While graphene-based materials have potential as adsorption materials, their performance may be hampered by aggregation and lack of control over their porosity and size.
In a recent study, researchers from the Universities of Exeter, Kyushu, and Oxford tackled this problem by developing a unique graphene material and high-porosity composite foam to combat aggregation.
Drugs are one of the most prominent emerging pollutants (EC) in water systems. They can cause serious environmental consequences as well as potential health problems. In order to successfully eradicate ECs from treated wastewater streams, sewage and drinking water purification facilities must adopt appropriate tertiary treatment methods. Compared to reverse osmosis, oxidation, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, ion exchange, etc., adsorption is considered to be a technology with great potential in water treatment because it is reliable and cheaper.
Graphene and graphene oxide (GO) have a greater tendency to adsorb natural pollutants because of their large innate specific area (relative to many different carbon-based substances), wettability, monolayer structure, and surfaces decorated with oxygen-containing functional groups (OCFG).
Boron nitride (BN) has many excellent qualities, including excellent thermal and chemical stability and excellent wear resistance; Therefore, it is used in high-temperature environments and other industries.
In this study, reduced porous GO nanofilms were effectively anchored to banded boron nitride foams for the treatment of water contaminated with gefilozide (GEM) in batch tests and column studies.
In terms of adsorption kinetics for gefilozil, the graphene-based foam is superior to its graphene-based competitors such as GO, PG, and Nanographene sheets (NGP), achieving an extraction efficiency of 90% in just 5 minutes.
In terms of lifetime, graphene-based nanomaterials supported by BN foams showed consistent gefilozil drug extraction over multiple cycles, with no significant adsorption loss. In addition, the foam material exhibits remarkable properties, including lightness of over 98% porosity and excellent strength, capable of withstanding 1,300-1,400 times its own weight.
The researchers believe that enhanced graphene-based composite foams for filtration purposes will be an important step forward in the water and wastewater filtration technology. These results suggest that high porosity foam-reinforced graphene nanomaterial filters with shorter interaction duration and longer penetration times for treating water and wastewater may be easily manufactured.
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Albemarle, the world's largest lithium producer, said it would have to close its plant in Langelsheim, Germany if the EU designated lithium as a hazardous material. The European Commission is currently evaluating a proposal by the European Chemicals Agency (EHCA) to classify lithium carbonate, lithium chloride, and lithium hydroxide as hazardous to human health.
As a result, Albemarle will no longer be able to import lithium chloride, its main raw material, putting its entire plant in Langelsheim at risk of closure, Albemarle chief financial Officer Scott Tozier said. According to Tozier, the plant has annual sales of about $500 million and a forced closure would have a significant impact on Albemarle's operations.
Industry sources said that listing lithium as a hazardous substance would place an additional burden on the graphene powder, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry.
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