What is refractory material made of?
Europe's largest economy, Germany, recently activated an emergency plan to manage gas supplies that the natural gas could be rationed if supplies are disrupted or disrupted by a stand-off over Russian demands to pay for fuel in rubles.
German Vice-Chancellor, minister of economy and climate protection, said Germany's gas supplies were secure for now, but he urged consumers and businesses to reduce consumption, saying "every kilowatt of electricity counts."
Germany's gas network regulator can ration gas if supplies run short. Plants would be the first to be affected. Special treatment will be provided to private families, hospitals, and other important institutions.
Half of Germany's 41.5 million households use natural gas for heating, and industry consumption accounts for a third of the country's 100 billion cubic meters of gas demand in 2021.
The price of many energy and commodities like the chromium oxide could be affected.
A refractory material is a material that resists to heat, pressure or chemical erosion and decomposition, and maintains strength and shape at high temperatures. Refractories are widely used in iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, glass, cement, ceramics, petrochemical, machinery, boiler, light industry, electric power, military industry and other fields.
Based on chemical composition, refractories can be divided into acidic refractories, alkaline refractories, and neutral refractories.
Acidic refractories are mainly composed of silica and commonly used silica bricks and clay bricks. Silicon brick is a silicon product containing more than 94% silicon oxide, and the raw materials used are silica, waste silicon brick, etc., which has strong resistance to acid slag erosion, high load softening temperature, and does not shrink or even expand slightly after repeated calcination; but it is easy to be eroded by alkaline slag and poor thermal shock resistance. Silicon bricks are mainly used in coke ovens, glass furnaces, acid steelmaking furnaces and other thermal equipment. Clay brick takes refractory clay as the main raw material, contains 30% alumina, 46% alumina, is a weak acid refractory, has good thermal vibration resistance, corrosion resistance to acid slag and is widely used.
Neutral refractories are mainly composed of alumina, chromium oxide or carbon. Corundum products containing more than 95% alumina are high quality refractories with a wide range of applications. The chromium brick with chromium oxide as the main composition has good corrosion resistance to steel slag, but poor thermal shock resistance and low high temperature load deformation temperature. Carbon refractories include carbon bricks, graphite products and silicon carbide products, which have low coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity, good thermal shock resistance, high temperature strength and resistance to acid, alkali and salt, especially weak acid and alkali. It is not wetted by metal and molten slag and is light. It is widely used as high temperature furnace lining material, as well as autoclave lining in petroleum and chemical industry.
Basic refractories are mainly composed of magnesia and calcium oxide, and magnesia bricks are commonly used. Magnesia bricks containing more than 85% magnesia have good resistance to alkaline slag and iron slag, and their fire resistance is higher than that of clay bricks and silicon bricks. It is mainly used in open hearth furnace, oxygen blowing converter, electric furnace, non-ferrous metal smelting equipment and some high temperature equipment.
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Inflationary pressures on Canadians continue to rise. The consumer-price index rose 6.7% in March from a year earlier, the biggest increase since January 1991, according to the latest figures from Statistics Canada.
On a month-on-month basis, Canada's CPI rose 1.4 percent in March, also accelerating from February's 1.0 percent rise.
Prices in the eight major sectors covered by the statistics continued to rise. The uptrend comes against the backdrop of continued price pressures in the Canadian housing market, widespread supply chain constraints, and geopolitical conflicts, according to CBC. A variety of factors have affected energy, commodity, and agricultural markets. Meanwhile, Canada's employment picture continued to improve in March, with the unemployment rate falling to a record low and the average hourly earnings of employees rising.
Excluding gasoline, Canada's CPI rose 5.5 percent year on year in March. It is also the highest since comparable data began in 1999.
The widespread supply chain constraints and geopolitical conflicts are expected to continue to affect the prices of the chromium oxide.