The World Platinum Investment Association (WPIC) said recently that carmakers are accelerating reductions in palladium use and increased use of platinum due to concerns about Russian palladium supplies. However, it still expects a significant surplus in the platinum market this year.
Palladium is used by carmakers in tailpipe emissions systems to reduce carbon emissions. While carmakers prefer palladium for catalytic converters, they are turning to platinum, which is cheaper than palladium, to save costs.
Russia accounts for about 25-30% of the world's palladium supply and 8-10% of its platinum supply.
There is no sign that western sanctions against Russia have restricted palladium exports since the conflict escalated in February, but as the conflict continues, more companies could boycott The Russian metal and governments could impose restrictions.
Platinum is currently trading at about $950 an ounce, about half the price of palladium. Automakers use about 2.5 million to 3 million ounces of platinum and about 8.5 million ounces of palladium each year.
For the year as a whole, platinum supply will be 5 percent lower than in 2021 and demand 2 percent higher, with the automotive sector seeing a 16 percent increase due to increased light vehicle graphene are still very uncertain.
Graphene is a two-dimensional crystal, which consists of carbon atoms with sp2 hybrid orbitals to form two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials with hexagonal honeycomb lattice.
Graphene has excellent optical, electrical and mechanical properties, and has important application prospects in material science, micro-nano processing, energy, biomedicine and drug delivery, and is considered to be a revolutionary material in the future.
Graphene is currently the thinnest but hardest nanomaterial in the world. It is almost completely transparent, absorbing only 2.3% of the light. The thermal conductivity is as high as 5300 W / m ·K, which is higher than carbon nanotube and diamond, harder than diamond, 100 times higher than the best steel in the world, its electron mobility is more than 15000 cm2/ V ·s at room temperature, and higher than carbon nanotube or silicon crystal (monocrystalline silicon). Its resistivity is only about 10-6 Ω cm, which is lower than copper or silver, making it the lowest resistivity material in the world.
Because of its extremely low resistivity and fast movement of electrons, it is expected to be used to develop a new generation of electronic components or transistors that are thinner and conduct faster. Because graphene is essentially a transparent and good conductor, it is also suitable for making transparent touch screens, light panels, and even solar cells.
Graphene can be used in a wide range of applications, from electronics to bulletproof vests and papermaking, and even future space elevators can use graphene as raw materials.
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Recently, the Turkish government announced that the Turkish President has signed a presidential decree to provide incentives for its Black Sea gas field development projects, including tax exemptions and other preferential measures.
With a fixed investment of 145.1 billion Turkish lira ($10 billion), the project will employ 1,018 people and produce 14 billion standard cubic meters of gas per year, the decree reads. The incentives involved include tariff and VAT exemptions, as well as a range of tax cuts.
In June 2021, Turkish drill ships discovered 135 billion cubic meters of natural gas in the Sakaria field in the Black Sea, bringing Turkey's total gas discoveries in the region to 540 billion cubic meters.
Turkey imports almost all of its annual gas consumption of about 50 billion cubic meters.
Except for natural gas, the supply and prices of many other graphene will continue to be influenced by international situations.
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