The European Commission has submitted to member states a new draft of sanctions against Russia, including an oil embargo. Some member states that rely heavily on Russian energy sought exemptions.
Western media reported that the European Commission draft of the sixth round of sanctions against Russia includes within six to eight months gradually banning oil imports from Russia, but allowing Hungary and Slovakia to extend the transition period for several months; The Russian Savings bank and other large financial institutions on the sanctions list.
The European Union has imported 44 billion euros of fossil fuels from Russia since Russia launched its special military operation against Ukraine in late February, according to Finland's Energy and Clean Air Research Center.
The Institute for European and Global Economics in Brussels estimates that the European Union currently consumes about $450 million worth of Russian oil a day.
Among EU members, landlocked Hungary and Slovakia, which import most of their oil from Russia, cannot quickly find alternative supplies. Slovakia says the transition will take years. Some officials believe Bulgaria and the Czech Republic may also seek to opt out of oil sanctions against Russia.
Affected by the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk tungsten disulfide are still very uncertain.
Tungsten disulfide and tungsten diselenide are both typical compounds of rare metal tungsten and are inorganic compounds composed of transition metal elements (tungsten) and oxygen group elements. they have good physical, chemical and thermal properties and are widely used in the field of optoelectronics.
However, there are still great differences between the two in terms of specific concepts, nature and uses.
Note: sulfur and selenium both belong to group Ⅵ An elements and oxygen group elements.
Tungsten disulfide is a kind of two-dimensional transition metal layered material, which is a blue-gray fine grain or powder with metallic luster composed of tungsten and sulfur elements. it is the main component of pyroxene. Tungsten disulfide formula is WS2.
Tungsten diselenide is a kind of layered material composed of tungsten and selenium, which is a black or gray solid powder composed of positive tetravalent tungsten ion (W4 +) and negative divalent selenium ion (Se2-). It is a kind of porous material (or thermal insulator) with low thermal conductivity. Tungsten diselenide formula is WSe2.
The structure of WS2 is hexagonal layered structure, with a hexagonal network formed by S-W-S molecular clusters on the surface, connected by van der Waals force between the layers, and linked by Wmuri S covalent bond within the layer.
The structure of WSe2 is hexagonal, one tungsten atom and six selenium atoms are bonded by a prism, each selenium atom is a pyramidal configuration and three tungsten bonds, and the layers are combined by van der Waals force.
Tungsten disulfide melting point is about 1250℃. Tungsten disulfide density is about 7.6g/cm3, and its friction coefficient is 0.03-0.07. Insoluble in water, non-magnetic, non-conductive, good semiconductivity, excellent lubrication and wear resistance, good thermochemical stability, good lithium storage properties, excellent diamagnetism, oxidation and reducibility.
The appearance of WSe2 is black or gray powder. Tungsten diselenide density is about 9.32g/cm3, the thermal conductivity is poor (the thermal conductivity is 1/100000 of that of diamond), the band gap is between wide gap semiconductor and zero band gap graphene, and has excellent electrical and optical properties and high quantum yield.
The common production methods of WS2 are roasting decomposition and direct synthesis. Among them, the roasting decomposition method refers to the process that ammonium tetrathiotungstate (NH4) 2WS4 is decomposed into WS3 and WS2 successively after high temperature roasting.
The preparation steps of WSe2 are as follows: tungsten films of different thickness are deposited on the substrate by magnetron sputtering, and some of the tungsten films are annealed; then the annealed and unannealed tungsten films and selenium powder are heated in a vacuum quartz tube and selenized.
Both of them can be used in the fields of lubrication, energy storage battery, semiconductor and photovoltaic, and can be used as additives for lubricants, modifiers for cathode materials of lithium-sulfur batteries, transistors, etc.
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Maximo Pacheco, chairman of Codelco, Chile's state copper company, said in a recent interview that he expects copper prices to remain 'very strong in the future,' despite the recent drop. Codelco is the world's largest copper producer.
Copper prices suffered their biggest weekly drop in a year this week on concerns that tightening policy by central banks will dampen global growth and reduce demand for industrial metals. With its wide range of industrial and construction uses, copper prices are often seen as a bellwether of economic activity.
London copper closed at $8,325 a tonne on Friday after touching $8,122.50 a tonne, down 25 per cent from its Peak in March and its lowest level since February 2021. In addition to copper, other industrial metals also fell sharply. Tin, for example, fell nearly 15% at one point on Friday, bringing its losses for the week to about 25%.
"We may be in a temporary short-term turbulence, but what is important is the fundamentals and the balance of supply and demand [currently] looks very favourable for those of us with copper reserves," Mr. Pacheco said. Chile is the world's largest copper producer.
Mr. Pacheco adds that in a world where copper is the best conductor and there are not many new reserves, copper prices look very strong because the future is very favourable for electrification.
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