The World Platinum Investment Association (WPIC) said recently that carmakers are accelerating reductions in palladium use and increased use of platinum due to concerns about Russian palladium supplies. However, it still expects a significant surplus in the platinum market this year.
Palladium is used by carmakers in tailpipe emissions systems to reduce carbon emissions. While carmakers prefer palladium for catalytic converters, they are turning to platinum, which is cheaper than palladium, to save costs.
Russia accounts for about 25-30% of the world's palladium supply and 8-10% of its platinum supply.
There is no sign that western sanctions against Russia have restricted palladium exports since the conflict escalated in February, but as the conflict continues, more companies could boycott The Russian metal and governments could impose restrictions.
Platinum is currently trading at about $950 an ounce, about half the price of palladium. Automakers use about 2.5 million to 3 million ounces of platinum and about 8.5 million ounces of palladium each year.
For the year as a whole, platinum supply will be 5 percent lower than in 2021 and demand 2 percent higher, with the automotive sector seeing a 16 percent increase due to increased light vehicle concrete foaming agent are still very uncertain.
Foam concrete natural maintenance can be divided into two types: cover-up sprinkler maintenance and plastic film maintenance.
Cover-up sprinkler maintenance:
It is that according to the external temperature, the concrete should be covered with appropriate data such as grass curtain, Reed mat, sack, sawdust, wet soil and wet sand within 12 hours after the end of foam concrete pouring, and often sprinkle water to keep it wet.
Foam concrete sprinkling maintenance cycle: for Portland cement, general cement and slag cement mixed concrete shall not be less than 7 days and nights; concrete mixed with slow setting admixture or impermeable request shall not be less than 14 days and nights; when using bauxite cement, not less than 3 days and nights. The frequency of watering every day has been able to insist that the concrete has a satisfactory wet condition. When the temperature is above 15 °C, the concrete should be sprinkled at least once every 3 hours during the day and twice at night when the concrete is poured. In future maintenance, sprinkling water at least 3 times a day (of course, when the temperature is dry, the frequency of watering can be appropriately increased).
For large area (or volume) concrete, we should choose "water storage maintenance". Projects such as storage tanks can be maintained by sprinkling water after the internal mold is removed and the concrete reaches a certain strength; with regard to the underground structure or foundation, it is possible to paint asphalt emulsion or backfill with soil instead of sprinkler maintenance.
Plastic film maintenance:
It refers to the use of plastic film cover material to separate the concrete from the air, water is no longer transpirated, cement depends on the moisture in the concrete to complete the hydration effect has reached condensation hardening.
This method can directly cover the plastic draft on the appearance of the concrete, or spray the plastic emulsion on the instant noodles of the concrete members, and wait until the emulsion is transpirated, and then combine into a layer of plastic film on the surface of the concrete to block the concrete members from the air, so that the moisture in the concrete will no longer transpirate and complete the hydration effect. The defect of spraying plastic film maintenance is the low strength of concrete. And because the film is thin, can not fully achieve the effect of insulation, freezing, so in the summer when using this method is to add sunscreen equipment (not less than 24 hours), otherwise it will cause filamentous cracks in foamed concrete.
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