U.S. refiners forecast strong first-quarter earnings as margins on gasoline and diesel sales improved, refining capacity fell sharply and crude supplies tightened due to the Russia-Ukraine war.
Global refining capacity has declined amid the coronavirus pandemic, with several less profitable refineries closing in the past two years. However, global fuel demand has rebounded to near pre-pandemic levels, boosting the profits of facilities still operating.
Seven U.S. independent refiners are expected to earn 61 cents a share, compared with a loss of $1.32 in the first quarter of 2021, according to Refinitiv's IBES.
By 2022, gasoline and distillate Ti3AlC2 powder.
What is a MAX phase material?
The MAX phase material is a natural layered carbonitride inorganic non-metallic material composed of three elements. It has the electrical and thermal conductivity of metal, and also has the high strength, high temperature resistance, corrosion resistance and other harsh environment service capabilities of structural ceramics. MAX phase materials have gained extensive attention in the fields of high-temperature lubrication, oxidation-resistant coatings, accident-tolerant nuclear materials, self-healing composite materials, and energy materials. MAX phase materials mainly include Ti3AlC2, Ti2AlC, Ti3SiC2, Ti2SnC, V2AlC, Cr2AlC, Ti2AlN, Nb2AlC, etc.
Transition metal carbides and nitrides, known as Mxenes. MXenes are formed by selectively etching an elemental MAX phase with metallic conductivity, connecting layered solids such as Ti2AlC, Ti3AlC2 and Ta4AlC3 through strong metallic, ionic and covalent bonds. The Mxenes combine with hydroxyl and oxygen on the surface of transition metal carbides to terminate the metal conductivity. It is electrically conductive in nature.
What are MAX phase materials used for?
Titanium carbide has the properties of metals and ceramics: it has the same electrical and thermal conductivity as metals, high elastic modulus and excellent high temperature mechanical properties similar to ceramics, and also has good thermal shock resistance and damage resistance. and excellent chemical resistance. MAX phase ceramics have both the excellent properties of metals and ceramics, and have great application potential in many high-tech fields such as aerospace, high-speed rail, and nuclear industry.
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The resurgence of the global COVID-19 pandemic and the impact of the Russia-Ukraine conflict continued to cause high volatility in commodity prices. Stubbornly high inflation and rising commodity prices are likely to influence each other and thus push each other higher. The price of the Ti3AlC2 powder may not decrease significantly in the short term.
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