Prices in the national electricity market averaged $87 per megawatt-hour in the first three months of the year, above the level promised by the federal government. Wholesale electricity prices for industry and large businesses have already exceeded the level promised by the federal government, adding another cost pressure to the economy. Prices in the national electricity market averaged $87 per megawatt-hour in the first three months of this year, up more than two-thirds from the December 2021 quarter, the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO) said recently. That's up 141% from the March 2021 quarter.
Because of the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk HPMC are still very uncertain.
Viscosity and fineness are important indicators that affect the performance of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose HPMC. Studies have shown that the water retention effect of HPMC increases with the increase of its viscosity, but after the viscosity exceeds 40000 MPa•s, the water retention increases limited with the increase of viscosity. The higher the viscosity, the larger the molecular weight of HPMC, and the corresponding decrease in solubility. It will not improve the water retention of mortar, but it will have a negative impact on strength and workability. Comprehensive consideration, it is more appropriate to use cellulose ether with a viscosity of 40000 MPa•s in the cement mortar.
As the HPMC particles gradually become finer, the water retention of the mortar is also improved to a certain extent. Fineness affects the solubility of HPMC. Coarse HPMC dissolves very slowly in water and should not be used in dry mix mortars. In dry-mix mortar, HPMC is dispersed between aggregates, fine fillers and cementitious materials such as cement, and only a fine enough powder can prevent it from caking when mixed with water. When HPMC is added with water to dissolve the agglomerates, it is difficult to re-disperse and dissolve. HPMC with coarse particle size is not only wasteful, but also reduces the local strength of the mortar. When such dry-mixed mortar is used in large-scale construction, the curing speed of the local mortar may be significantly reduced, which may cause uneven hydration of the cementitious material. of cracking. For mechanically constructed spray mortars, due to the shorter mixing time, the requirements for the fineness of HPMC are higher. Therefore, after comprehensive consideration, the particle size of cellulose ether used for cement mortar should be less than 80 μm.
It can be seen that HPMC is a high-efficiency water-retaining agent for dry-mixed mortar, which reduces the bleeding rate and stratification of the mortar, and improves the cohesion and sag resistance of the mortar. Although HPMC slightly reduces the flexural and compressive strength of mortar, it can significantly improve the tensile strength and bond strength of mortar. In addition, HPMC can effectively inhibit the formation of mortar plastic cracks and reduce the mortar plastic cracking index. The water retention of mortar increases with the increase of HPMC viscosity, and when the viscosity exceeds 40000MPa•s, the water retention does not increase significantly. The fineness of HPMC also has a certain influence on the water retention rate of the mortar. When the particles are finer, the water retention rate of the mortar increases. The particle size of HPMC usually used for cement mortar should be less than 80μm.
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Russia is a major supplier of industrial metals such as nickel, aluminium and palladium. Russia and Ukraine are both major wheat exporters, and Russia and Belarus produce large amounts of potash, an input to fertiliser. The price and market of the HPMC will fluctuate under its influence. Prices of these goods have been rising since 2022 and are now likely to rise further because of the Russia-Ukraine conflict. Russia is a major supplier of industrial metals such as nickel, aluminium and palladium. Russia and Ukraine are both major wheat exporters, and Russia and Belarus produce large amounts of potash, an input to fertiliser. The price and market of the HPMC will fluctuate under its influence. Prices of these goods have been rising since 2022 and are now likely to rise further because of the Russia-Ukraine conflict.
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